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One of the hardest parts of writing a research paper can be just finding a good topic to write about. Fortunately we've done the hard work for you and have compiled a list of 113 interesting research paper topics. They've been organized into ten categories and cover a wide range of subjects so you can easily find the best topic for you.

In addition to the list of good research topics, we've included advice on what makes a good research paper topic and how you can use your topic to start writing a great paper.

What Makes a Good Research Paper Topic?

Not all research paper topics are created equal, and you want to make sure you choose a great topic before you start writing. Below are the three most important factors to consider to make sure you choose the best research paper topics.

#1: It's Something You're Interested In

A paper is always easier to write if you're interested in the topic, and you'll be more motivated to do in-depth research and write a paper that really covers the entire subject. Even if a certain research paper topic is getting a lot of buzz right now or other people seem interested in writing about it, don't feel tempted to make it your topic unless you genuinely have some sort of interest in it as well.

#2: There's Enough Information to Write a Paper

Even if you come up with the absolute best research paper topic and you're so excited to write about it, you won't be able to produce a good paper if there isn't enough research about the topic. This can happen for very specific or specialized topics, as well as topics that are too new to have enough research done on them at the moment. Easy research paper topics will always be topics with enough information to write a full-length paper.

Trying to write a research paper on a topic that doesn't have much research on it is incredibly hard, so before you decide on a topic, do a bit of preliminary searching and make sure you'll have all the information you need to write your paper.

#3: It Fits Your Teacher's Guidelines

Don't get so carried away looking at lists of research paper topics that you forget any requirements or restrictions your teacher may have put on research topic ideas. If you're writing a research paper on a health-related topic, deciding to write about the impact of rap on the music scene probably won't be allowed, but there may be some sort of leeway. For example, if you're really interested in current events but your teacher wants you to write a research paper on a history topic, you may be able to choose a topic that fits both categories, like exploring the relationship between the US and North Korea. No matter what, always get your research paper topic approved by your teacher first before you begin writing.

113 Good Research Paper Topics

Below are 113 good research topics to help you get you started on your paper. We've organized them into ten categories to make it easier to find the type of research paper topics you're looking for.



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How to Write a Great Research Paper

Even great research paper topics won't give you a great research paper if you don't hone your topic before and during the writing process. Follow these three tips to turn good research paper topics into great papers.

#1: Figure Out Your Thesis Early

Before you start writing a single word of your paper, you first need to know what your thesis will be. Your thesis is a statement that explains what you intend to prove/show in your paper. Every sentence in your research paper will relate back to your thesis, so you don't want to start writing without it!

As some examples, if you're writing a research paper on if students learn better in same-sex classrooms, your thesis might be "Research has shown that elementary-age students in same-sex classrooms score higher on standardized tests and report feeling more comfortable in the classroom."

If you're writing a paper on the causes of the Civil War, your thesis might be "While the dispute between the North and South over slavery is the most well-known cause of the Civil War, other key causes include differences in the economies of the North and South, states' rights, and territorial expansion."

#2: Back Every Statement Up With Research

Remember, this is a research paper you're writing, so you'll need to use lots of research to make your points. Every statement you give must be backed up with research, properly cited the way your teacher requested. You're allowed to include opinions of your own, but they must also be supported by the research you give.

#3: Do Your Research Before You Begin Writing

You don't want to start writing your research paper and then learn that there isn't enough research to back up the points you're making, or, even worse, that the research contradicts the points you're trying to make!

Get most of your research on your good research topics done before you begin writing. Then use the research you've collected to create a rough outline of what your paper will cover and the key points you're going to make. This will help keep your paper clear and organized, and it'll ensure you have enough research to produce a strong paper.

What's Next?

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Top 200+ Ideas For Research Paper Topics 2023

Updated 02 Mar 2023

Some say the most difficult part of writing a text – is to start. But topic selection even precedes this starting point. This activity takes off a lot of time, and sometimes imagination just doesn’t work in your favor. That’s where our list of best research paper topics will come in handy.

We collected the most unhacked and powerful ideas to turn the average piece of writing into a research paper . Discover  what is a research paper and how to choose suitable and interesting research topics with our help. 

Writing a research topic on your own requires either producing one from scratch (based on your interests and goals and potentially, on some brainstorming) or getting inspiration from a number of sources, like preassembled topic lists, course material, teachers, real life, news headlines, published research in the respective field, etc.

What are the 3 Types of Research Questions?

Before formulating your research questions ideas, note that there are 3 important types of research questions:

What is a Good Research Paper Topic?

Features that tend to characterize good research questions are as follows:

College Research Paper Topics

Essay Examples Relevant to College

Health Research Paper Topics

Essay Examples Relevant to Health

Research Paper Topics on Medicine

Essay Examples Relevant to Medicine

Need more writing assistance?

Connect with our top writers and receive writing sample crafted to your needs.

Education Research Paper Topics

Essay Examples Relevant to Education

Read also: 150+ Best Sociology Research Topics

Environmental Research Paper Topics

Essay Examples Relevant to Environmental Research Paper Topics

Research Topics on Entertainment and Sport

Essay Examples Relevant to Entertainment and Sport

Research Paper Topics on Media and Communication

Essay Examples Relevant to Media and Communication

Research Paper Topics on Politics

Essay Examples Relevant to Politics

Psychology Research Paper Topics

Essay Examples Relevant to Psychology

Science & Technology Research Paper Ideas

Essay Examples Relevant to Science & Technology

Research Topics Ideas on Culture

Essay Examples Relevant to Culture

Research Paper Topics on Math

Essay Examples Relevant to Math

Research Paper Topics on Business

Essay Examples Relevant to Business

Research Paper Topics For Middle School

Essay Examples Relevant to Middle School

High School Research Paper Ideas

Essay Examples Relevant to High School

History Research Paper Topics

Essay Examples Relevant to History

Art Research Paper Ideas

Essay Examples Relevant to Art

Literature Research Paper Topics

Essay Examples Relevant to Literature

Law Research Paper Topics

Essay Examples Relevant to Law

Religion Research Paper Topics

Essay Examples Relevant to Religion

Argumentative Research Paper Topics

Essay Examples Relevant to Argumentative Research Paper Topics

These are the 200+ topics on various subjects, which you might find useful when creating your own. In case you need help aside from creating topics, you can also order the original research on Politics, Media & Communication, Math, Law, and even Nursing papers for sale on Edubirdie.

How to Choose a Good Research Paper Topic?

While it may seem challenging to come up with a good research paper topic as you try your best to narrow things down, the trick is to choose something that influences you because you know it well and can support your arguments with relevant evidence. The subject should be well-structured and relevant to your thesis statement. Always take time to research the list of sources to compose your topic sentences as well to make them relate to your thesis part. It’s always best to check a good research paper introduction example before you start working on the paper and choosing your topic. Here are the steps to consider:

If you are confused with a variety of interesting topics for writing a creative essay, it’s better to decide what interests you the most. Don’t stick to easy research paper topics just to complete the task fast. If you are allowed to freely choose what to write an essay about, use the opportunity to create something unique. Write down the list of your interests and break down every idea into small certain topics. When you have a list in front of your eyes, it will be easier to make up your mind and start considering a particular issue.

Then you should examine what aspect of the topic is preferable for you to outline in your research paper . A list will save you here again. Use pros/cons template to include all the arguments and objections to the issues.

The most challenging part of choosing a competitive research paper topic is finding an aspect that poses some importance for your course and the subject per se. While it may seem that it is sufficient to make a general statement, your argumentation should include a clear research question. Consider asking yourself why you have chosen a particular topic and how your research will make it clearer or provide innovative solutions.

Since we have already mentioned the dangers of choosing something too broad, it is vital to narrow things down and brainstorm the list of possible research paper ideas that deal with the same subject. In other words, you can write down at least five different subjects and see whether you can find sufficient information to support them with the sources or statistical data. Remember the importance of your topic’s wording!

It must be done at the same time as you choose your research paper topic because these two concepts must be interconnected. Your subject must reflect your main idea of the thesis statement. Make sure that you have the list of sources prepared in advance to incorporate relevant information in your body paragraphs. As always, they must be the supporting evidence for your thesis statement’s idea and the research purpose.

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Home » Northern Arizona University » Where Is The Research Question In A Research Paper?

Where Is The Research Question In A Research Paper?

Table of Contents

The research question, the objective or hypothesis of the study, helps to set up context for what you have researched and why you chose to study this particular topic. Therefore, it is included in the Introduction of the manuscript .

Where is research question located?

Good writing begins with clearly stating your research question (or hypothesis) in the Introduction section —the focal point on which your entire paper builds and unfolds in the subsequent Methods, Results, and Discussion sections.

What is a research question in a research paper?

What is a research question? A research question is the question around which you center your research . It should be: clear: it provides enough specifics that one’s audience can easily understand its purpose without needing additional explanation.

Where can I find research questions in thesis?

One or two declarative sentences (no questions). Generally placed at the end of the introduction; however, it can sometime be found at the end of the research or literature review section of more extensive papers .

Is the research question the title of the paper?

It should provide more information about your research and the main outcome that you have achieved. It is not advisable to have a question as the title of your paper as it is the first thing readers will see about your paper.

How do you find the research question and hypothesis in an article?

The first few paragraphs of a journal article serve to introduce the topic, to provide the author’s hypothesis or thesis, and to indicate why the research was done. A thesis or hypothesis is not always clearly labled; you may need to read through the introductory paragraphs to determine what the authors are proposing .

What are the parts of research paper?

There are eight main parts in a research paper:

How do you present a research question in a paper?

How do you introduce a research question in a paper example?

Are research questions the same as hypothesis?

Both are aspects of the Scientific Method, but they are not identical . A research question is typically a concise, focused and debatable question that will provide a clear path for research. A hypothesis is a formal statement designed to predict the relationship between two or more variables.

What comes first thesis or research question?

Simply stated, a thesis statement is what your paper intends to prove or show. A research question is what you need to learn in order to come up with a good thesis statement. Instead of starting with a thesis statement, it’s better to start with a question , and there are a couple of reasons for that.

Where do research questions come from?

The research question emerges from the topic of interest, or more directly from the topic problem, and the methodology of choice . Its articulation is carefully crafted to establish both lenses.

Where does the problem statement go in a research paper?

A problem statement can be several paragraphs long and serve as the basis for your research proposal, or it can be condensed into just a few sentences in the introduction of your paper or thesis .

What’s a research question examples?

10 Research Question Examples to Guide your Research Project

Can a research paper start with a question?

This is your thesis. 3) Writing the paper. The paper should start with an introduction that states your question or puzzle , and your thesis. If you can’t state your thesis in one or at most two sentences, you probably do not have a clear answer/argument.

Can you ask questions in a research paper?

You can ask a question in an essay provided the question leads to an idea . The idea in this case should be the answer to the question you just asked. Don’t ask a question to which you don’t intend to give an answer. Instead of a direct rhetorical question in an essay, use a rhetorical statement.

Is research question in abstract?

For a research paper, an abstract typically answers these questions: Purpose: What is the nature of your topic/study and why did you do it? Methods: What did you do, and how? Results: What were your most important findings?

What is the title of Chapter 1 in research?

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND This chapter includes the introduction, theoretical framework, statement of the problem, hypothesis, scope and limitation, conceptual framework, significance of the study and the definition of terms used.

What chapter is hypothesis in research?


What are the 5 parts of a research paper?

5 parts of research paper

What is the chapter 2 of a research paper?

A PRACTICAL GUIDE TO RESEARCH WRITING – CHAPTER TWO This is the chapter where you provide detailed explanation of previous researches that has been conducted on your topic of interest .

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Research Paper Guide

Research Paper Topics

Nova A.

250+ Interesting Research Paper Topics for 2022

22 min read

Published on: Dec 5, 2017

Last updated on: Jan 23, 2023

Research Paper Topics

On This Page On This Page

There are a number of tasks you will have to face when you enroll in a college. Most students feel stressed and tired, particularly when it comes to writing a research paper.

Some say the hardest part of drafting a text is to get started. However, selecting good research topics even precedes the starting point. This practice takes a lot of time and creativity. Therefore, exploring this complete guide will give you plenty of topic ideas in no time.

Most of the time, the instructors assign a list of topics to the students. While sometimes, they give you the freedom to come up with the topic of your choice.

This is where our list of best research paper topics will come in handy. The  essay experts  at  have collected impressive ideas for your paper. We will assist you in turning an average research paper into an exceptional one.

How to Find a Good Research Paper Topic?

There are some special techniques you should follow to pick the right research paper topic. Follow the easy steps below to find good research paper topics.

1. Conduct Background Research

The first step is to conduct detailed background research by reviewing the existing literature. It will help to identify the history of a well-defined research problem. Similarly, it will also assist in developing research questions and a  thesis statement .

2. Brainstorm Topic Ideas

Brainstorm research topic ideas and make a list of the general subjects. Narrow down to a specific field of study and choose the one that interests you the most. It is the key to producing an interesting and impressive writing piece.

You can further take help from your professor to identify a unique idea to write a research paper. Remember, it would be better to avoid controversial topics for research papers if you are not confident about justifying them.

3. Find Relevant Information

The next step is to find relevant information about your chosen topic. For this, read different points of view available on the internet. Also, consult scholarly sources like books and peer-reviewed articles to keep the facts straight and referable.

4. Use Keywords

Try to come up with a keyword and reach the best-suited topic according to your subject and preference. For example, the keyword ‘violence’ can provide you with a number of choices. It may include gun violence, domestic violence, and other essay topics related to abuse.

This step serves as a crucial strategy to grab the reader’s attention.

5. Keep Your Audience in Mind

Always keep your target audience in mind. It is another important element in selecting your high-school or college research paper topics.

For this, a writer must strictly comply with the instructor's preference and requirements. Make sure your topic gets approved before you begin with the writing process.

What is a Good Topic for a Research Paper?

A good research topic is the one that has the following characteristics;

Specific and Solid -  the aims of research and expected results should be clear.

Original and Unique -  a good research topic should be original. And the research should be aimed to be unique and never done before.

Extremely Important -  It should be significant for the society, community, or to a field of study.

Relevant -  It should be relevant for the readers.

Trending -  These kinds of topics are the ones that spark interest among the readers and keep them interested.

What are the 6 Types of Research Questions?

Here are the 6 important types of research questions that you should know about when creating it for your research paper.

Best Research Paper Topics 2022

Here are some impressive and easy research paper topics to write an extraordinary paper.

Research Paper Topics on Marketing and Business

Research Paper Topics on Economics

Research Paper Topics on Current Affairs

Research Paper Topics on Education

Research Paper Topics on English Literature

College Research Paper Topics

High School Research Paper Topics

Research Paper Topics on Health

Research Paper Topics on Abortion

Psychology Research Paper Topics

Related:   Psychology Research Topics - 200+ Interesting Ideas

Research Paper Topics on Adoption

Research Paper Topics on Information Technology

Research Paper Topics on Media and Communication

Research Paper Topics on Computer Science

Sociological Research Paper Topics

Related:  Interesting Sociology Research Topics & Ideas for Students

Research Paper Topics on Religion

Research Paper Topics on Bullying

Research Paper Topics on Culture

Argumentative Research Paper Topics

Persuasive Research Paper Topics

History Research Paper Topics

Research Paper Topics on Arts

Easy Research Paper Topics

Research Paper Topics on World Problems

Research Paper Topics on Criminal Justice

Funny Research Paper Topics

Good Research Paper Topics

Here are some good research paper topics for you to choose from for your paper.

US History Research Paper Topics

Research Paper Topics on Social Media

Research Paper Topics for English Linguistics

Controversial Research Paper Topics

Nursing Research Paper Topics

Research Paper Topics in Chemistry

Ethical Research Paper Topics

Environmental Research Paper Topics

Politics Research Paper Topics

Science and Technology Research Paper Topics

Law Research Paper Topics

Social Research Paper Topics

The above-given interesting research topics will help you write a perfect research paper.

If you still need more good ideas, seeking  essay writing help  is what most students prefer.

Keep in mind that the writing industry has a lot of fake and inexperienced writers. And if you're not careful, you might be scammed easily. So when choosing a paper writing service, you need to be very careful.

Similarly, most companies do not hire subject specialists with advanced knowledge and expertise. This is where  comes in, the  best essay writing service . 

Our professionals have Master's and PhD degrees. We work with an aim to provide 100% original and high-quality papers. 

Similarly, our company makes sure to assign a subject specialist to work on your research paper at affordable rates. We will not only select research paper topic ideas for you but also assist in writing your paper from scratch.

Simply place your order now to work with our best  essay writer  to get your paper done.

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Research Aims, Objectives & Questions

The “Golden Thread” Explained Simply (+ Examples)

By: David Phair (PhD) and Alexandra Shaeffer (PhD) | June 2022

The research aims , objectives and research questions (collectively called the “golden thread”) are arguably the most important thing you need to get right when you’re crafting a research proposal , dissertation or thesis . We receive questions almost every day about this “holy trinity” of research and there’s certainly a lot of confusion out there, so we’ve crafted this post to help you navigate your way through the fog.

Overview: The Golden Thread

What is the “golden thread”?  

The golden thread simply refers to the collective research aims , research objectives , and research questions for any given project (i.e., a dissertation, thesis, or research paper). These three elements are bundled together because it’s extremely important that they align with each other, and that the entire research project aligns with them.

Importantly, the golden thread needs to weave its way through the entirety of any research project , from start to end. In other words, it needs to be very clearly defined right at the beginning of the project (the topic ideation and proposal stage) and it needs to inform almost every decision throughout the rest of the project. For example, your research design and methodology will be heavily influenced by the golden thread (we’ll explain this in more detail later), as well as your literature review.

The research aims, objectives and research questions (the golden thread) define the focus and scope ( the delimitations ) of your research project. In other words, they help ringfence your dissertation or thesis to a relatively narrow domain, so that you can “go deep” and really dig into a specific problem or opportunity. They also help keep you on track , as they act as a litmus test for relevance. In other words, if you’re ever unsure whether to include something in your document, simply ask yourself the question, “does this contribute toward my research aims, objectives or questions?”. If it doesn’t, chances are you can drop it.

Alright, enough of the fluffy, conceptual stuff. Let’s get down to business and look at what exactly the research aims, objectives and questions are and outline a few examples to bring these concepts to life.

Webinar - How to find a research topic

Research Aims: What are they?

Simply put, the research aim(s) is a statement that reflects the broad overarching goal (s) of the research project. Research aims are fairly high-level (low resolution) as they outline the general direction of the research and what it’s trying to achieve .

Research Aims: Examples  

True to the name, research aims usually start with the wording “this research aims to…”, “this research seeks to…”, and so on. For example:

As you can see, these research aims provide a high-level description of what the study is about and what it seeks to achieve. They’re not hyper-specific or action-oriented, but they’re clear about what the study’s focus is and what is being investigated.

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question for research paper

Research Objectives: What are they?

The research objectives take the research aims and make them more practical and actionable . In other words, the research objectives showcase the steps that the researcher will take to achieve the research aims.

The research objectives need to be far more specific (higher resolution) and actionable than the research aims. In fact, it’s always a good idea to craft your research objectives using the “SMART” criteria. In other words, they should be specific, measurable, achievable, relevant and time-bound”.

Research Objectives: Examples  

Let’s look at two examples of research objectives. We’ll stick with the topic and research aims we mentioned previously.  

For the digital transformation topic:  

And for the student wellness topic:  

  As you can see, these research objectives clearly align with the previously mentioned research aims and effectively translate the low-resolution aims into (comparatively) higher-resolution objectives and action points . They give the research project a clear focus and present something that resembles a research-based “to-do” list.

The research objectives detail the specific steps that you, as the researcher, will take to achieve the research aims you laid out.

Research Questions: What are they?

Finally, we arrive at the all-important research questions. The research questions are, as the name suggests, the key questions that your study will seek to answer . Simply put, they are the core purpose of your dissertation, thesis, or research project. You’ll present them at the beginning of your document (either in the introduction chapter or literature review chapter) and you’ll answer them at the end of your document (typically in the discussion and conclusion chapters).  

The research questions will be the driving force throughout the research process. For example, in the literature review chapter, you’ll assess the relevance of any given resource based on whether it helps you move towards answering your research questions. Similarly, your methodology and research design will be heavily influenced by the nature of your research questions. For instance, research questions that are exploratory in nature will usually make use of a qualitative approach, whereas questions that relate to measurement or relationship testing will make use of a quantitative approach.  

Let’s look at some examples of research questions to make this more tangible.

Research Questions: Examples  

Again, we’ll stick with the research aims and research objectives we mentioned previously.  

For the digital transformation topic (which would be qualitative in nature):  

And for the student wellness topic (which would be quantitative in nature):  

You’ll probably notice that there’s quite a formulaic approach to this. In other words, the research questions are basically the research objectives “converted” into question format. While that is true most of the time, it’s not always the case. For example, the first research objective for the digital transformation topic was more or less a step on the path toward the other objectives, and as such, it didn’t warrant its own research question.  

So, don’t rush your research questions and sloppily reword your objectives as questions. Carefully think about what exactly you’re trying to achieve (i.e. your research aim) and the objectives you’ve set out, then craft a set of well-aligned research questions . Also, keep in mind that this can be a somewhat iterative process , where you go back and tweak research objectives and aims to ensure tight alignment throughout the golden thread.

 Your research questions will be the driving force throughout the research process, especially in the literature review and methodology chapters.

The importance of strong alignment 

Alignment is the keyword here and we have to stress its importance . Simply put, you need to make sure that there is a very tight alignment between all three pieces of the golden thread. If your research aims and research questions don’t align, for example, your project will be pulling in different directions and will lack focus . This is a common problem students face and can cause many headaches (and tears), so be warned.

Take the time to carefully craft your research aims, objectives and research questions before you run off down the research path. Ideally, get your research supervisor/advisor to review and comment on your golden thread before you invest significant time into your project, and certainly before you start collecting data .  

Recap: The golden thread

In this post, we unpacked the golden thread of research, consisting of the research aims , research objectives and research questions . You can jump back to any section using the links below.

As always, feel free to leave a comment below – we always love to hear from you. Also, if you’re interested in 1-on-1 support, take a look at our private coaching service here.

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This post is part of our research writing mini-course, which covers everything you need to get started with your dissertation, thesis or research project.

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Saunders' Research Onion - Explained Simply (With Examples)


Isaac Levi

Thank you very much for your great effort put. As an Undergraduate taking Demographic Research & Methodology, I’ve been trying so hard to understand clearly what is a Research Question, Research Aim and the Objectives in a research and the relationship between them etc. But as for now I’m thankful that you’ve solved my problem.

Hatimu Bah

Well appreciated. This has helped me greatly in doing my dissertation.

Dr. Abdallah Kheri

An so delighted with this wonderful information thank you a lot.

so impressive i have benefited a lot looking forward to learn more on research.

Ekwunife, Chukwunonso Onyeka Steve

I am very happy to have carefully gone through this well researched article.

Infact,I used to be phobia about anything research, because of my poor understanding of the concepts.

Now,I get to know that my research question is the same as my research objective(s) rephrased in question format.

I please I would need a follow up on the subject,as I intends to join the team of researchers. Thanks once again.


Thanks so much. This was really helpful.


i found this document so useful towards my study in research methods. thanks so much.

Michael L. Andrion

This is my 2nd read topic in your course and I should commend the simplified explanations of each part. I’m beginning to understand and absorb the use of each part of a dissertation/thesis. I’ll keep on reading your free course and might be able to avail the training course! Kudos!


Thank you! Better put that my lecture and helped to easily understand the basics which I feel often get brushed over when beginning dissertation work.

Enoch Tindiwegi

This is quite helpful. I like how the Golden thread has been explained and the needed alignment.

Sora Dido Boru

This is quite helpful. I really appreciate!


The article made it simple for researcher students to differentiate between three concepts.

Afowosire Wasiu Adekunle

Very innovative and educational in approach to conducting research.

Mohammed Shamsudeen

A very helpful piece. thanks, I really appreciate it .

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Writing a Research Paper Introduction | Step-by-Step Guide

Published on September 24, 2022 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on November 29, 2022.

The introduction to a research paper is where you set up your topic and approach for the reader. It has several key goals:

The introduction looks slightly different depending on whether your paper presents the results of original empirical research or constructs an argument by engaging with a variety of sources.

Table of contents

Step 1: introduce your topic, step 2: describe the background, step 3: establish your research problem, step 4: specify your objective(s), step 5: map out your paper, research paper introduction examples, frequently asked questions about the research paper introduction.

The first job of the introduction is to tell the reader what your topic is and why it’s interesting or important. This is generally accomplished with a strong opening hook.

The hook is a striking opening sentence that clearly conveys the relevance of your topic. Think of an interesting fact or statistic, a strong statement, a question, or a brief anecdote that will get the reader wondering about your topic.

For example, the following could be an effective hook for an argumentative paper about the environmental impact of cattle farming:

A more empirical paper investigating the relationship of Instagram use with body image issues in adolescent girls might use the following hook:

Don’t feel that your hook necessarily has to be deeply impressive or creative. Clarity and relevance are still more important than catchiness. The key thing is to guide the reader into your topic and situate your ideas.

This part of the introduction differs depending on what approach your paper is taking.

In a more argumentative paper, you’ll explore some general background here. In a more empirical paper, this is the place to review previous research and establish how yours fits in.

Argumentative paper: Background information

After you’ve caught your reader’s attention, specify a bit more, providing context and narrowing down your topic.

Provide only the most relevant background information. The introduction isn’t the place to get too in-depth; if more background is essential to your paper, it can appear in the body .

Empirical paper: Describing previous research

For a paper describing original research, you’ll instead provide an overview of the most relevant research that has already been conducted. This is a sort of miniature literature review —a sketch of the current state of research into your topic, boiled down to a few sentences.

This should be informed by genuine engagement with the literature. Your search can be less extensive than in a full literature review, but a clear sense of the relevant research is crucial to inform your own work.

Begin by establishing the kinds of research that have been done, and end with limitations or gaps in the research that you intend to respond to.

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The next step is to clarify how your own research fits in and what problem it addresses.

Argumentative paper: Emphasize importance

In an argumentative research paper, you can simply state the problem you intend to discuss, and what is original or important about your argument.

Empirical paper: Relate to the literature

In an empirical research paper, try to lead into the problem on the basis of your discussion of the literature. Think in terms of these questions:

You can make the connection between your problem and the existing research using phrases like the following.

Now you’ll get into the specifics of what you intend to find out or express in your research paper.

The way you frame your research objectives varies. An argumentative paper presents a thesis statement, while an empirical paper generally poses a research question (sometimes with a hypothesis as to the answer).

Argumentative paper: Thesis statement

The thesis statement expresses the position that the rest of the paper will present evidence and arguments for. It can be presented in one or two sentences, and should state your position clearly and directly, without providing specific arguments for it at this point.

Empirical paper: Research question and hypothesis

The research question is the question you want to answer in an empirical research paper.

Present your research question clearly and directly, with a minimum of discussion at this point. The rest of the paper will be taken up with discussing and investigating this question; here you just need to express it.

A research question can be framed either directly or indirectly.

If your research involved testing hypotheses , these should be stated along with your research question. They are usually presented in the past tense, since the hypothesis will already have been tested by the time you are writing up your paper.

For example, the following hypothesis might respond to the research question above:

The final part of the introduction is often dedicated to a brief overview of the rest of the paper.

In a paper structured using the standard scientific “introduction, methods, results, discussion” format, this isn’t always necessary. But if your paper is structured in a less predictable way, it’s important to describe the shape of it for the reader.

If included, the overview should be concise, direct, and written in the present tense.

Full examples of research paper introductions are shown in the tabs below: one for an argumentative paper, the other for an empirical paper.

Are cows responsible for climate change? A recent study (RIVM, 2019) shows that cattle farmers account for two thirds of agricultural nitrogen emissions in the Netherlands. These emissions result from nitrogen in manure, which can degrade into ammonia and enter the atmosphere. The study’s calculations show that agriculture is the main source of nitrogen pollution, accounting for 46% of the country’s total emissions. By comparison, road traffic and households are responsible for 6.1% each, the industrial sector for 1%. While efforts are being made to mitigate these emissions, policymakers are reluctant to reckon with the scale of the problem. The approach presented here is a radical one, but commensurate with the issue. This paper argues that the Dutch government must stimulate and subsidize livestock farmers, especially cattle farmers, to transition to sustainable vegetable farming. It first establishes the inadequacy of current mitigation measures, then discusses the various advantages of the results proposed, and finally addresses potential objections to the plan on economic grounds.

The rise of social media has been accompanied by a sharp increase in the prevalence of body image issues among women and girls. This correlation has received significant academic attention: Various empirical studies have been conducted into Facebook usage among adolescent girls (Tiggermann & Slater, 2013; Meier & Gray, 2014). These studies have consistently found that the visual and interactive aspects of the platform have the greatest influence on body image issues. Despite this, highly visual social media (HVSM) such as Instagram have yet to be robustly researched. This paper sets out to address this research gap. We investigated the effects of daily Instagram use on the prevalence of body image issues among adolescent girls. It was hypothesized that daily Instagram use would be associated with an increase in body image concerns and a decrease in self-esteem ratings.

The introduction of a research paper includes several key elements:

and your problem statement

Don’t feel that you have to write the introduction first. The introduction is often one of the last parts of the research paper you’ll write, along with the conclusion.

This is because it can be easier to introduce your paper once you’ve already written the body ; you may not have the clearest idea of your arguments until you’ve written them, and things can change during the writing process .

The way you present your research problem in your introduction varies depending on the nature of your research paper . A research paper that presents a sustained argument will usually encapsulate this argument in a thesis statement .

A research paper designed to present the results of empirical research tends to present a research question that it seeks to answer. It may also include a hypothesis —a prediction that will be confirmed or disproved by your research.

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Research Paper Quiz Questions And Answers!


Have you ever prepared research papers? If you want to check how well you understand the terms, you can take this research paper quiz. With research paper quiz questions and answers, you can check your knowledge and get to learn something, which you were unable to recall during the routine. Read the questions carefully to get all the questions correct with a perfect score. All the best! And, don't forget to share the results on social handles and friends.

Solving a mystery.

Designing a puzzle.

Digging in the ground to retrieve something.

Classifying books in a research library.

As a student writing for your instructor.

As an instructor writing for students.

As an expert writing for other experts.

As a reporter writing for the general public.

Inform your reader.

Persuade your reader.

Save your reader time.

Motivate your reader to learn more about the subject.

A semi-colon.

A question mark.

To qualify statements.

To add minor comments.

To make insertions in quotations.

To indicate deleted material.

To imply something that isn’t actually stated.

In your introduction.

In your thesis statement in your introduction.

In the first sentence of your introduction.

In the last sentence of your introduction.

Summarize your paper’s main point or thesis (since it’s unnecessary).

Introduce a final, strong argument to support your thesis.

State why the results of your research are significant.

Point out where further research on your topic is needed.

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110 Immigration Research Paper Topics

choose Immigration Research Paper Topics

Immigration is the process of people moving to a country and can be either voluntary or involuntary. Immigration is a very interesting aspect of education, and you may be asked at one point or another to come up with a research paper in the immigration niche.

Immigration is a broad topic, and it can be difficult to choose immigration research paper topics. Here are some broad categories of immigration.

Why Do You Need Help Choosing Immigration Research Paper Topics?  

You’re ready to write your immigration research paper, but you’re scared. It’s easy to get overwhelmed when you’re looking for research paper topics. Why? Because there are so many things that you can write about, it can be hard to know where to start.

You’ve put a lot of thought into the topic, but you’re not sure how to start. Maybe you have a great idea but don’t know where to start writing. Or maybe you’ve already written the outline, but it’s not working out. You feel stuck.

Whatever the case may be, it’s normal to get stressed out when writing a research paper on an important topic like immigration. When you’re in this situation, it can be really helpful to have someone who can point out what works and what doesn’t work with your outline or subject matter. And that’s where we come in.

There are many benefits to getting help with your immigration paper research topics.

Immigration has been a hot topic for quite some time now. Since the government has been putting a heavy focus on it, there are a lot of different angles to research. This can make it difficult to find a topic that is interesting and relevant to your own life experience.

Immigration is a very touchy subject, which means that it can be hard to find something that accurately reflects your views on the issue without being too extreme or inflammatory.

If your research paper is due soon, you might not have enough time to do the necessary research and choose topics yourself. Seeking help out there makes your work easier and saves you from stress!

Other than just looking at things from your point of view, seeking help from other sources can help you get detailed in-depth approaches.

Immigration Research Paper Topics

As a result of the Covid-19 Pandemic and other global military wars, the difficulties associated with immigration are now more widely recognized in the world. Are you looking for good topics to write about for your immigration research paper? If so, the list below includes some of the top options:

Simple Immigration Essay Topics

Selecting a simple topic for an immigration essay is not always an easy thing to do. At times, it requires you to spend a lot of time doing research here and there. To save you from this stress, we have compiled the top ten simple immigration essay topics for you!

International Immigration Essay Topics

We have compiled 10 international immigration essay topics for your essay because when it comes to choosing topics about immigration internationally, you need to make sure it covers the entire world of immigration. This can often be a difficult process.

Best Immigration Research Topics

Do you want to come up with the best topic for your essay in your class? We also want you to be the best, so we’ve put together a list of some of the best topics on immigration that you could pick from.

Immigration Argumentative Essay Topics

Because you would need to compare and view the issue from all sides, choosing an argumentative immigration topics to write about could be challenging. To make your job easier, we have compiled a list of 10 argumentative immigration essay ideas for you below.

Controversial Immigration Topics

When we discuss contentious topics, we typically engage in debate or discussion of divergent viewpoints. Finding a topic on this can be difficult at times, but don’t worry; to relieve some of your tension, we’ve selected 10 contentious immigration topics for research paper that you can choose from or use as a reference:  

Immigration Thesis Topics

Choosing a thesis topic on immigration requires extensive research because the paper needs to be outstanding and well written. Do you need a thesis for an academic degree? Here are 10 thesis immigration topics for essays that could help you.

Global Politics Immigration Paper Topics

Global politics is a large topic. So, finding suitable global political immigration topics may be a bit tiresome. Here are 10 global research topics on immigration that you can choose from!

Illegal Immigration Research Paper Topics

Illegal immigration is a big problem for law enforcement and the national security of many countries. It also often leads to violations of the human rights of the most vulnerable people.

Would you like to investigate this for a research paper? Here are some illegal immigration topics to research that can help.

Research Paper Topics on Immigration in America

Are you seeking a topic to write about for a research paper about immigration in America? Here are 10 excellent American immigration research paper topics for you.  

Persuasive Speech Topics About Immigration

You need to make sure the topics you choose for your persuasive speeches are compelling enough to win over your audience. Finding a topic like this could be difficult, but we have nonetheless put together a list of the top 10 persuasive immigration topics for essay from which you can choose.

How to Choose a Topic on Immigration

Choosing a topic for your immigration research paper is a big decision. You have to consider your audience, the content of the paper, and how much time you have to write it. Here are some tips for choosing the best immigration research paper topics.

You can’t write an immigration research paper if you don’t know who you’re writing it for! Before you start writing, sit down with the person in charge of your assignment (usually the professor) and get their feedback on what they need from you. This will help you narrow down topics that they’ll find interesting and relevant, which will make them more excited about reading your work!

You may want to try writing something new, but don’t forget about other people’s work! Go online and check out any papers written by professors on similar topics in your field. Have them give their opinions about whether or not those papers are good examples of quality work done well. If they love something else, maybe those details can help inspire yours!

Do some research on current events. This is where most of the immigration news comes from, so it’s a great way to find out what’s happening in your community.

Read blogs and articles from reliable sources like newspapers or websites that focus on profiling immigrants and people who are looking for asylum.

Immigration research paper topics could be challenging to find. Sometimes they are complex and require an in-depth understanding. Here are 110 immigration research paper topics you can choose from. Sometimes, you might need help in writing your research paper. You can always outsource your research paper to a trusted writing company to help you!

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How to Write a Research Question

What is a research question? A research question is the question around which you center your research. It should be:

You should ask a question about an issue that you are genuinely curious and/or passionate about.

The question you ask should be developed for the discipline you are studying. A question appropriate for Biology, for instance, is different from an appropriate one in Political Science or Sociology. If you are developing your question for a course other than first-year composition, you may want to discuss your ideas for a research question with your professor.

Why is a research question essential to the research process? Research questions help writers focus their research by providing a path through the research and writing process. The specificity of a well-developed research question helps writers avoid the “all-about” paper and work toward supporting a specific, arguable thesis.

Steps to developing a research question:

Sample Research Questions

Unclear: How should social networking sites address the harm they cause? Clear: What action should social networking sites like MySpace and Facebook take to protect users’ personal information and privacy? The unclear version of this question doesn’t specify which social networking sites or suggest what kind of harm the sites might be causing. It also assumes that this “harm” is proven and/or accepted. The clearer version specifies sites (MySpace and Facebook), the type of potential harm (privacy issues), and who may be experiencing that harm (users). A strong research question should never leave room for ambiguity or interpretation. Unfocused: What is the effect on the environment from global warming? Focused: What is the most significant effect of glacial melting on the lives of penguins in Antarctica?

The unfocused research question is so broad that it couldn’t be adequately answered in a book-length piece, let alone a standard college-level paper. The focused version narrows down to a specific effect of global warming (glacial melting), a specific place (Antarctica), and a specific animal that is affected (penguins). It also requires the writer to take a stance on which effect has the greatest impact on the affected animal. When in doubt, make a research question as narrow and focused as possible.

Too simple: How are doctors addressing diabetes in the U.S.? Appropriately Complex:   What main environmental, behavioral, and genetic factors predict whether Americans will develop diabetes, and how can these commonalities be used to aid the medical community in prevention of the disease?

The simple version of this question can be looked up online and answered in a few factual sentences; it leaves no room for analysis. The more complex version is written in two parts; it is thought provoking and requires both significant investigation and evaluation from the writer. As a general rule of thumb, if a quick Google search can answer a research question, it’s likely not very effective.

Last updated 8/8/2018


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Where to Put the Research Question in a Paper

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Silke Haidekker has a PhD in Pharmacology from the University of Hannover. She is a Clinical Research Associate in multiple pharmaceutical companies in Germany and the USA. She now works as a full-time medical translator and writer in a small town in Georgia.

Of Rats and Panic Attacks: A Doctoral Student’s Tale

You would probably agree that the time spent writing your PhD dissertation or thesis is not only a time of taking pride or even joy in what you do, but also a time riddled with panic attacks of different varieties and lengths. When I worked on my PhD thesis in pharmacology in Germany many years back, I had  my  first panic attack as I first learned how to kill rats for my experiments with a very ugly tool called a guillotine! After that part of the procedure, I was to remove and mash their livers, spike them with Ciclosporin A (an immunosuppressive agent), and then present the metabolites by high-pressure liquid chromatography.

Many rats later, I had another serious panic attack. It occurred at the moment my doctoral adviser told me to write my first research paper on the Ciclosporin A metabolites I had detected in hundreds of slimy mashes of rat liver. Sadly, this second panic attack led to a third one that was caused by living in the pre-internet era, when it was not as easy to access information about  how to write research papers .

How I got over writing my first research paper is now ancient history. But it was only years later, living in the USA and finally being immersed in the language of most scientific research papers, that my interest in the art of writing “good” research papers was sparked during conferences held by the  American Medical Writers Association , as well as by getting involved in different writing programs and academic self-study courses.

How to State the Research Question in the Introduction Section

Good writing begins with clearly stating your research question (or hypothesis) in the Introduction section —the focal point on which your entire paper builds and unfolds in the subsequent Methods, Results, and Discussion sections . This research question or hypothesis that goes into the first section of your research manuscript, the Introduction, explains at least three major elements:

a) What is  known  or believed about the research topic?

B) what is still  unknown  (or problematic), c) what is the  question or hypothesis  of your investigation.

Some medical writers refer to this organizational structure of the Introduction as a “funnel shape” because it starts broadly, with the bigger picture, and then follows one scientifically logical step after the other until finally narrowing down the story to the focal point of your research at the end of the funnel.

Let’s now look in greater detail at a research question example and how you can logically embed it into the Introduction to make it a powerful focal point and ignite the reader’s interest about the importance of your research:

a) The Known

You should start by giving your reader a brief overview of knowledge or previous studies already performed in the context of your research topic.

The topic of one of my research papers was “investigating the value of diabetes as an independent predictor of death in people with end-stage renal disease (ESRD).” So in the Introduction, I first presented the basic knowledge that diabetes is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and thus made the reader better understand our interest in this specific study population. I then presented previous studies already showing that diabetes indeed seems to represent an independent risk factor for death in the general population. However, very few studies had been performed in the ESRD population and those only yielded controversial results.

Example :  “It seems well established that there is a link between diabetic nephropathy and hypertensive nephropathy and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in Western countries. In 2014, 73% of patients in US hospitals had comorbid ESRD and type 2 diabetes (1, 2, 3)…”

b) The Unknown

In our example, this “controversy” flags the “unknown” or “problematic” and therefore provides strong reasons for why further research is justified. The unknown should be clearly stated or implied by using phrases such as “were controversial” (as in our example), “…has not been determined,” or “…is unclear.” By clearly stating what is “unknown,” you indicate that your research is new. This creates a smooth transition into your research question.

Example :  “However, previous studies have failed to isolate diabetes as an independent factor, and thus much remains unknown about specific risk factors associated with both diabetes and ESRD .”

c) The Research Question (Hypothesis)

Your research question is the question that inevitably evolves from the deficits or problems revealed in the “Unknown” and clearly states the goal of your research. It is important to describe your research question in just one or two short sentences, but very precisely and including all variables studied, if applicable. A transition should be used to mark the transition from the unknown to the research question using one word such as “therefore” or “accordingly,” or short phrases like “for this reason” or “considering this lack of crucial information.”

In our example, we stated the research question as follows:

Example :  “Therefore, the primary goal of our study was to perform a Kaplan-Meier survival study and to investigate, by means of the Cox proportional hazard model, the value of diabetes as an independent predictor of death in diabetic patients with ESRD.”

Note that the research question may include the  experimental approach  of the study used to answer the research question.

Another powerful way to introduce the research question is to  state the research question as a hypothesis  so that the reader can more easily anticipate the answer. In our case, the question could be put as follows:

Example :  “To test the hypothesis that diabetes is an independent predictor of death in people with ESRD, we performed a Kaplan-Survival study and investigated the value of diabetes by means of the Cox proportional hazard model.”

Note that this sentence leads with an introductory clause that indicates the hypothesis itself, transitioning well into a synopsis of the approach in the second half of the sentence.

The generic framework of the Introduction can be modified to include, for example,  two  research questions instead of just one. In such a case, both questions must follow inevitably from the previous statements, meaning that the background information leading to the second question cannot be omitted. Otherwise, the Introduction will get confusing, with the reader not knowing where that question comes from.

Begin with your research purpose in mind

To conclude, here is my simple but most important advice for you as a researcher preparing to write a scientific paper (or just the Introduction of a research paper) for the first time: Think your research question through precisely before trying to write it down; have in mind the reasons for exactly why you wanted to do this specific research, what exactly you wanted to find out, and how (by which methods) you did your investigation. If you have the answers to these questions in mind (or even better, create a comprehensive outline ) before starting the paper, the actual writing process will be a piece of cake and you will finish it “like a rat up a drainpipe”! And hopefully with no panic attacks.

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Before submitting your master’s thesis or PhD dissertation to academic journals for publication, be sure to receive proofreading services (including research paper editing , manuscript editing , thesis editing , and dissertation editing ) to ensure that your research writing is error-free. Impress your journal editor and get into the academic journal of your choice.    

Hello, I'm doing a research paper on (VETYEARS) Number of years in...

Hello, I'm doing a research paper on (VETYEARS) Number of years in...

Hello, I'm doing a research paper on (VETYEARS) Number of years in the military (IV) and (EVIDU)  R ever-injected drugs (DV). In need materials/reference sources to analyze these methods to validate/their reliability. As to accuracy versus relevance must be peer-reviewed scholarly articles. Need guidance.

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Questions in a Research Paper

The academic community is concerned with any kind of a research paper since it is the material for work. As a rule, the students’ academic branch is usually linked to such research papers as a master’s thesis, a term paper or a doctoral dissertation. Generally speaking, a research paper may be defined as an area of the academic origin which is concerned with its author’s quaint input to the analysis and interpretation of any subject matter in a particular field.

As far as a research paper, in general, is concerned, you will find information which is suitable for any kind of a research paper. Of course, the most worrying issue is the usage of different types of questions in a formal academic paper. This problem is developed from a variety of perspectives.

Furthermore, you will be able to find a bunch of useful information on writing a research paper. A responsible writer of a research paper has to pay attention to small but sufficient details while doing research. Therefore, there is a need to analyze the possibility of questions usage while relying on a research paper of any type. We will help you understand if you can use questions in research papers.

Can you use Questions in a research paper?

A research paper is the type of writing which demands deep analysis as well as thoroughly investigated phenomena of the subject matter. Overall this type of paper is highly codified writing in a rhetorical form. Rules are of the utmost importance; therefore, it is easier to plan the draft of the research paper in a questionnaire form rather than in a statement manner.

There is a necessity to address a specific research question. It is not a typical question that is easy to answer since the whole research paper is aimed at responding to it throughout the paper. Any information which is related to the research question is important for the paper; the other one is not.

Understandably, the research question is central whereas there may exist secondary but related questions. It would be easier to compose the draft of the work with them. It is worth noting that interrogative sentences are not advised to use in the research paper, they are better for the researcher’s understanding of how to organize the whole paper.

Alternatively, the research question possesses some key features which define that it is not a typical question of posterior importance. If you want to be logical and consequent in your research paper, pay attention to the research question specificity, novelty, originality, relevance. The paper has to be suitable for a broad scientific community.

Can you Start a Research paper with a question?

As far as we know the essence of a research paper, it is easier to predict how the structure of a research paper looks like. One may be constantly curious about the necessity of questions in the introduction part. If you want to know whether you can start a research paper with a question, there is the necessity to understand what type of a question is suitable for the beginning part.

Therefore, this issue is a bit controversial. Some of the students may be confused with the title of a research paper as well since it is an important driving force of the whole academic work. If you want to ask whether research paper titles can be questions, the answer is approving. However, it is much better to have a respond as a title of the research paper. The interrogative form is not typical for titles through the meaning of interrogation is preserved. We want you to get excellence in the academic field, so refer to the following ideas while starting your research paper .

Therefore, if you think you can start off a research paper with a question, be sure you understand what type of a question is meant and what the best position of it is.

Can you End a research paper with a question?

When it comes to the end of the research paper, each writer is willing to sound academic and broad-minded. Sometimes a very interesting thing happens when a writer is full of ideas, and he or she tries to put every new thought in the conclusion part of the research paper and use interesting things to write a research paper on.

It is the closing paragraph which is aimed at summarizing the main points in a research paper. The typical question about the conclusion usually sounds like the following: can I end a research paper with a question? The answer is: you would better avoid it. There are some reasons why not do this, so let’s refer to the following on how to avoid spoiling your close-to-perfection research paper.

1. Questions (as the most worrying issue)

As it has been previously mentioned, there is a necessity to differentiate among various kinds of questions. If we mention an ordinary, for instance, yes/ no or wh-question, they are not appropriate due to the fact that they develop new ideas which are banned in this very part of the research paper.

Therefore, do not tend to end a research paper with a question. Questions are of the utmost importance on the step of pre-work over the issue to analyze. When you, as a writer, try to compose the first draft of the paper, do it in a questionnaire form. This will help you to see what information is not relevant to your subject matter. Moreover, you will be able to see the further work from the introduction part until the end of a research paper.

2. Contradictions

All the doubts or following ideas are not typical to refer to in the conclusion body of a research paper. They are the fundamentals of the body part. Honestly, this is the largest part of a research paper and, definitely, it is easier to place this information in the body, rather than in conclusion. If you feel there is something contradictory while you approach the end of the research paper, you would better avoid showing hesitation at the end of the academic work.

It is not appropriate to offer opposing viewpoints or hesitations about the finding in conclusion. It will, undoubtedly, spoil the whole work and show you in bad light within an academic community. It is necessary to pay attention to contradictions on the step of pre-work with a research paper.

The choice of topic is meant here. It is difficult to predict whether the topic will soon offer a range of contradictions to work with. The only thing a careful writer has to do is to analyze the topic from different perspectives. If you, as a writer, work in a field of linguistics, do not try to limit yourself only within this sphere, try to find information on the aspects of developing the same topic within the branch of sociology. Doing this will assist you in overcoming a range of contradictions on the level of pre-work.

3. Brand new ideas

Presumably, the most frequent mistake of an average student is placing new ideas or findings at the end of the research paper. One may think that it creates the room for the reader to think about the issue. Honestly, it rather raises doubts concerning the practical use of your research as well as its novelty and completeness. Remember, no one starts a new idea in the end.

4. Extra evidence.

It is necessary for the academic writer to be logic and sound precise and convinced in what he or she writes and develops. Quotes, supporting statements or evidence are not appropriate for the conclusion since they are perceived as new ideas, to some extent. While referring to the structure of a research paper, it is necessary to know there is a reference part of this type of writing.

Therefore, all the used material has to be supported in the body part of the writing through referencing the sources in a proper manner (it depends what citation style is obligatory for personally your type of a research paper).

Graduates are those students who have already worked with a number of research papers. So, it is not a secret for them that each type of writing possesses a number of clichés. These are phrases which assist in defining the level of formality. For instance, some papers demand personal pronouns, some not – these are cliché, to some extent.

If you start working with a research paper, the first and foremost thing to do is to refer to the formal clichés concerning your type of a research paper. They will serve as linking words and phrases to bind all the ideas raised in the paper. Some clichés are used with a range of contractions or abbreviations.

Even though they are clichés, they are not to use in a formal type of writing such as a research paper. Therefore, as a writer, you have to pay attention to ‘don’t,’ ‘won’t,’ ‘hasn’t,’ try to use the full form. Some traditional phrases consist of colloquial vocabulary. Words and phrases which are constantly used in everyday spoken language are meant.

Be careful with them while using cliché phrases. Those who are appropriate for opinion essays are out-of-use for the master’s thesis. Moreover, if you want to develop your own style of writing, do not refer to the usage of idioms, while working with a research paper. Idiomatic phrases show the level of the language development, but the academic sphere is not the niche to show it.

Can you Use Rhetorical Questions in a Research Paper?

A rhetorical question is the specific type of interrogation which does not demand the urgent and precise answer; it rather leaves something to think over. Not all types of research papers are appropriate to be with a rhetorical question. A perfect example of the research paper which approves the usage of a rhetorical question is the one about social matters. You may ask a rhetorical question at the end if it meets the purpose of the paper.

The rhetorical question is usually bound with a research question; it may even be the same version of it. Remember, a research question is placed in the introduction part of a research. When you place the rhetorical question in the conclusion part, make sure your research paper reveals the evidence in the body for answering it.

The deductive manner is developed here which shows that your research paper is logically developed and used for the academic community. If it is allowed by the rules concerning your type of a research paper, you may briefly summarize the answer after the stated question. However, you have to be careful with rhetorical questions at the end of the research paper since they may be inappropriate. Readers are not that audience which is thoroughly chosen, and they do not usually demonstrate conversance in a particular topic of your research.

You do not have to take risks with rhetorical questions since you can be misunderstood and your academic work will leave a bad opinion. If you have strong will to place the question, do not perform it in the interrogative form, try to turn it in a way that it sounds formal and it is affirmative. It would serve as a hint for the reader.

The topicality will be evident since the reader feels the necessity to think over the issue. The practical relevance to the contemporary usage will become urgent. All the preceding information is of the utmost importance since it helps you, as a writer, to save precious time on the work itself omitting pitfalls and mistakes.

This article is useful for the academic writers due to the fact that it raises the most worrying aspect of a research paper – a question. As you may now understand, questions are possible to use in a research paper; everything depends on the type of a question, its mode, and place in the research paper. The only thing a research paper writer has to do is to be careful with addressing the reader with a question. Since the audience can be different, therefore, the academic paper has to be multi-perspective and topical.

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Write By Example Of This The Question Research Proposal

Type of paper: Research Proposal

Topic: Students , English , Performance , Writing , Study , University , Testing , Relationships

Words: 1600

Published: 03/08/2023


The IELTS test is one of the most significant single measures of student ESL skills, as it relates to class placement, program acceptance and more. As such, I feel that it is imperative that these tests accurately measure skill and predict performance. Members of the educational community should be concerned with this question, because it directly impacts international enrollment and student success, as well as graduation rates, and program acceptance. The findings derived from the study could be used to improve program criteria, or testing approach in order to increase accuracy of placement, and improve student performance, among non-native speakers of English who are applying to English speaking university programs.

The question has been posited: Is the IELTS written test a valid predictor of student performance, or a meaningful guide for student acceptance and placement, within the University setting? This question will specifically focus on the relationship between “band scores”, or score range that a student is awarded when taking the writing portion of the IELTS, and student performance and outcomes, both with regard to university admission and with regard to in-class performance. I predict that the study will uncover significant flaws in the IELTS, and will demonstrate a need for more accurate assessment in order to appropriately place students, and improve their success at the academic level. This is based both of evidence uncovered in the literature review, and in my casual observation of students who have taken the IELTS, and who have been incorrectly placed as a result of their scores.

Literature Review

There has been an active field of research surrounding the accuracy and efficacy of the IELTS writing test. One significant area of research is related to the IELTS writing test’s ability to predict University Performance. One such study, by Trish Cooper (2014) asks whether or not there is a correlative relationship between the IELTS writing scores and classroom performance. Cooper’s study takes aim at creating meaningful data around the way that IELT scores are used to make high stakes decisions in the University setting, including being used to determine what a student is actually capable of, and to what degree educators can expect them to engage in academic level writing. The study found that the IELTS writing task was far more accurate at, or had more in common with, discourse skills, or oral language patterns, than it did with the language patterns in typical written discourse. These findings indicated that this demonstrates that the IELTS Task 2 writing assessment is not a valid predictor of a student’s university performance, as it relates to first year writing tasks (Cooper, 2014). Similarly. Vicki Feast (2002) studied the relationship between university performance and IELTS scores, going a step beyond Cooper, in order to establish a causative, rather than correlative relationship. In Feast’s (2002) study a strong positive relationship was established between IELTS test score, and University performance as measured by GPA. As such, the study recommended, in direct opposition to Cooper’s findings, that an increase in minimum English Proficiency as measured by the IELTS could actually improve student performance at the graduate and post-graduate level, by correctly predicting student success and readiness. These studies can be more completely understood through the theoretical lens provided by Cyril Weir (2005), who stated that context validity should be considered both with regard to context, and with regard to known theory. The test’s context must be statistically considered as it relates to not only performance conditions, but also operations (p.56). Theory, in contrast, looks at construct validity, and uses relationships to address the constructs ability to measure those relationships, (Weir, 2005). Bearing these things in mind, and given the difference of opinion based on basic correlation, it is significant to consider the work which has been done to determine what the core relationships are between IELTS writing tests and student writing performance, or academic ability. One study by Amanda Muller (2015), meaningfully demonstrates that IELTS score does not always accurately reflect academic performance level of students. It quantitatively considers the gap between what is demonstrated in standardized testing, and what students are actually capable of doing within the academic classroom. Similarly, a study by Moore & Morton (2005), like Muller, considered the gap between IELTS and performance, but rather, this considers the gap between IELTS testing strategy and classroom tasks. In other words, it considers the way in which IELTS measures a different set of skills than academic work. This is very significant to our study. If the tasks are comparable then we should see a strong correlation in the data that we collect in our research process, but if they are not comparable then we will see variance, which is indicative of a major flaw in the testing system. More specifically relating to the issues of both the correlation and the performance findings, it could be said that the testing system is flawed and in need of redesign. Uysal (2010) completed a critical review of the IELTS test, giving special attention to various flaws in the testing procedure which could lead to a lack of reliability and trying to determine whether or not they have created unreliability in practice. He also provides suggestions for changes that should be made in order to increase the reliability and usability of the test. This is strong evidence, as our hypothesis suggests, that changes need to be made in order to improve the effectiveness of the test overall.

Proposed Methodology:

The Methodology: My study will be a Quantitative study, because I am interested, from a descriptive statistic standpoint in the relationship between performance in English and Major related coursework and the performance that students have on the IELTS test. The Qualitative data that would be related might tell me more about how students feel about their performance in each scenario, but would not provide me a numeric comparison of measurable performance. I think that Quantitative data will show whether or not the IELTS is serving its purpose, and correctly predicting student success in these two main areas: English related coursework, and field of interest.

Written IELTS test score and performance in English 101/ entry level English class based on percentage grade in the course, and performance in entry level class in the student’s degree area, based on percentage grade in the course. The IELTS score will be measured by band scored. The bands of interest are likely to be between 5 and 8, with most students falling in the 6.0 to 7.5 range of bands.

Discussion of Possible Outcome:

While it is possible that we will find that this is accurate and meets the needs of students, universities, and professors, I think it more likely that we will discover critical flaws that need addressed with regard to both accuracy and use. In either case, the findings will be significant in determining the future of collegiate program. For example, the validity of the test is integral in setting admission requirements, establishing course level which a student can be admitted into, and in establishing remediation for certain low preforming students. If it is discovered that it is accurate and meets student’s needs, then there is no need to revamp current testing and admission strategies, and current performance markers will be fully supported, and can be considered best practice, with supporting evidence of efficacy. However, if the findings indicate that the testing program is not appropriately measuring student performance, and is contributing to the misplacement of students within the academic setting, then the testing, or the way the tests are used needs to be improved in such a way that it increases the level of student success overall.

Sample Survey:

Age: _________________________________________________________________________ Country of Citizenship: __________________________________________________________ IELTS Score: _________________________________________________________________ Current GPA: __________________________________________________________________ Average grade in majors area courses: ______________________________________________ Average grade in general requirements and electives: __________________________________ How did you prepare for the IELTS Test: ___________________________________________ How do you feel that the test relates to coursework: ____________________________________ What would you like to see change ? ________________________________________________ Do you feel your IELTS score correctly placed you in the program ? ______________________ IQ Test Results: ____________________________________________ Other placement tests results:______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________


Cooper, Trish. "Can IELTS Writing Scores Predict University Performance? Comparing the Use of Lexical Bundles in IELTS Writing Tests and First-year Academic Writing." Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus 42.0 (2014): 63. Web. Feast, Vicki. “The Impact of IELTS scores on performance at University. International Education Journal Vol 3, No 4, 2002. Print. Moore, Tim, and Janne Morton. "Dimensions of Difference: A Comparison of University Writing and IELTS Writing." Journal of English for Academic Purposes 4.1 (2005): 43-66. Web. Müller, Amanda. "The Differences In Error Rate And Type Between IELTS Writing Bands And Their Impact On Academic Workload." Higher Education Research & Development 34.6 (2015): 1207-1219. Academic Search Complete. Web. 9 Mar. 2016. Uysal, Hacer Hande. "A Critical Review Of The IELTS Writing Test." ELT Journal: English Language Teaching Journal 64.3 (2010): 314-320. Academic Search Complete. Web. 9 Mar. 2016. Weir, C. Language Testing and Validation. 2005. New York: Springer.

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question for research paper

Research Paper Question

The purpose of the paper.

One of the major parts of developing any research paper is defining the research paper question.

This article is a part of the guide:

Browse Full Outline

In an experiment-based project, this question naturally leads onto a hypothesis .

For a more review -based paper, such as an essay, it will lead to a thesis statement .

When trying to define the research paper purpose, you should brainstorm a few ideas , which will help you to develop a research question that is relevant, interesting and novel. Some ideas are:

Obviously, for a short-term research project, you do not have to answer yes to all of these questions or be as rigorous.

For a dissertation or thesis, these are just some of the possible questions, and for research scientists submitting a proposal, affirmative answers to all these questions are the bare minimum for receiving a research grant .

question for research paper

Narrowing Down the Research Paper Question

A general research question will usually be based around 'why' or 'how' a certain phenomenon is happening.

An example of a good general research statement could be:

'What is causing deforestation in the Amazon rainforest?'

This statement is based around a review of the literature, which shows that the Amazon rainforest surface area is shrinking rapidly. You can use this fact as a starting point and a basic assumption upon which to build your research project.

Whilst many researchers have postulated reasons for this, there is no clear consensus about what factor, or combination of factors, is contributing to the environmental and ecological damage. Now you need to narrow down the broad question, ideally moving towards a hypothesis or thesis question .

For example, looking at the above general question, you could arrive at:

'Is intensive agriculture the major cause of deforestation in the Amazon?'
'Is the logging industry the major cause of deforestation in the Amazon?'
'Is global warming the major cause of deforestation in the Amazon?'

Once you have a good research paper question , you can then begin to generate a testable hypothesis or research question , and construct your paper around this.

At the end of the research, you will be able to refer your results and discussion back to the research paper question, adding a little more information to the store of human knowledge.

Martyn Shuttleworth (Oct 18, 2009). Research Paper Question. Retrieved Mar 13, 2023 from

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Centers, Labs, & Programs

3 Questions: Mriganka Sur on the research origins of the first approved drug to treat Rett syndrome

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Mriganka Sur stands at a lectern in an auditorium. Behind him is a banner with the Picower Institute's 20th Anniversary logo.

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Rett syndrome is a devastating developmental disorder, principally occurring in girls, caused by mutations in the gene MECP2 that leads to severe cognitive, motor, and other symptoms. As such, the March 10 approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration of the first-ever treatment for the disorder, a drug called Trofinetide based on the natural protein IGF-1, brings new hope to patients and their families.

The approval is also a dream come true for Mriganka Sur , Newton Professor of Neuroscience in The Picower Institute for Learning and Memory and the Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences at MIT. His lab’s preclinical discoveries in mice, particularly a highly influential paper published in 2009, provided the first demonstration that injecting IGF-1 or its peptide fragment could reverse the effects of reduced or altered MECP2. This provided a mechanism-based rationale for IGF-1 as a potential therapeutic intervention . And Sur’s lab has never stopped studying Rett syndrome since.

The research began nearly 20 years ago when his lab was studying a famous phenomenon in neuroscience: When an animal’s eye is blocked during a critical period of development, the brain shifts neural connections called synapses to devote more brainpower to the unblocked eye. Sur’s lab investigated the molecules involved in this flexibility, or “ocular dominance plasticity,” and discovered IGF-1’s role. Here, Sur discusses his Rett syndrome research.

Q: How did your lab discover that IGF-1 might be a potential Rett syndrome therapeutic?

A: We decided to study the molecular basis of ocular dominance plasticity using a large-scale, unbiased screen. An interesting gene set that changed when an eye was closed was the IGF-1 gene set named for the growth factor IGF-1. When we checked one week after closing the eye, a binding protein for IGF-1 had gone up. It soaked up a lot of IGF-1. That suggested that to make connections change you must decrease molecules like IGF-1.

This was published in a paper in 2006 in Nature Neuroscience , where Daniela Tropea, who was a postdoc in the lab, led the experiments. The icing on the cake was when Daniela delivered a peptide form of IGF-1 to the brain. When she did that and closed the eye, thereby overcoming the reduction of IGF-1, then this shift of synapses did not happen. The addition of IGF-1 into the brain stabilized synapses and made them resistant to change, essentially making them adult-like.

In 2007 the lab of Adrian Bird in Edinburgh made a mouse line in which they could keep MECP2 in check for the first five or six weeks of life, so that the mice began to develop Rett syndrome-like symptoms. But then Adrian's lab turned the gene back on and the mice largely recovered. I was immediately struck by this discovery. It showed that Rett syndrome is not a disorder of degeneration, it is a disorder of aberrant and even abnormally prolonged development: :oss of MeCP2 likely reduces molecules that the brain requires for normal development, but adding back these molecules could enable the brain to develop normally, at least to some extent.

The developing brain shows pronounced plasticity, as demonstrated by ocular dominance plasticity in visual cortex. This plasticity occurs only during early life, and not later. If mice missing MECP2 had aberrantly prolonged development, they should show this plasticity later in life as well. Daniela and I decided to do an experiment to test this idea. We asked whether we could use our visual cortex paradigm to ask, is there prolonged plasticity into adulthood in Rett model mice and can we reverse it by adding IGF-1? We did this using Rett model mice from the lab of Rudolf Jaenisch at the Whitehead Institute [for Biomedical Research].

Unlike in normal mice, where there is only a critical time window of plasticity in the visual cortex, Rett model mice showed an effect of closing one eye even in adulthood. We immediately then asked, is there reduced IGF-1 in the brain? And there was, and there was increased IGF-1 binding protein. These mice were in a state of perpetual plasticity.

We reasoned if we could give adult Rett model mice a peptide form of IGF-1 via injection the effect of this perpetual plasticity should go away, meaning that the animals should not show an effect of the eye being closed — as occurs when mice normally mature. And that’s what happened. We showed that IGF-1 peptide increased expression of a number of synaptic molecules and made excitatory synapses stronger. This provided a powerful mechanism for explaining the effects of the drug. Finally we asked, do the mice do better in other ways? We found that the mice lived longer, that they moved better and other symptoms improved.

We published that discovery in 2009 in PNAS : In a mouse model we showed that by understanding the molecules underlying Rett syndrome’s prolonged development and plasticity we could intervene to potentially offset the molecular and synaptic deficits and treat the disorder. This is the foundational discovery behind Trofinetide and its mechanism of action in Rett syndrome.

Q: Tell us about your lab’s continued work on fundamental mechanisms of Rett syndrome?

A: We’ve never stopped working on Rett syndrome. It’s a devastating disorder, and there is certainly still much left to learn.

In 2014 we  published another paper in PNAS showing that doses of recombinant human IGF1 were effective in mice. And I was also the co-author in that same journal later that year showing encouraging results in a small human clinical trial.

We’ve also done more research, right up to the present day, to understand the fundamental mechanisms of how the genetic mutations perturb brain development. In 2017 using induced stem cell cultures derived from patients and normal subjects, we  found  that when MECP2 is lacking, microRNAs critical to proper brain development become misregulated. Overexpression of the microRNAs prevented new neurons from being born, whereas inhibiting the microRNAs enabled healthy neural birth. This was a surprisingly early effect of Rett syndrome that we demonstrated directly in human neurons and their progenitors.

Last year we used an innovative combination of advanced imaging methods and human stem cell-derived organoids to  show  that in Rett syndrome, the migration of neurons to the cerebral cortex becomes much slower and highly erratic. These discoveries led to the sobering realization that there can be very early changes in brain development due to the genetic mutations of Rett syndrome.

Q: What is the significance of seeing this basic research achieve clinical utility and impact?

A: By studying plasticity in normal mice and the fundamental mechanisms by which synapses change, and hence change brain function and behavior, we moved into analyzing the effect of a gene that underlies a devastating brain disorder. IGF-1 peptide has become the very first molecule to reach this stage for any developmental brain disorder in that it is a mechanism-based therapeutic. Based on an animal model and doing the mechanistic analysis of why does the gene affect the brain and how might we offset it, we set the course for the first drug to treat Rett syndrome.

A lot of the early work was Daniela’s insight in terms of how to think about basic mechanisms of developmental plasticity and apply them to brain disorders. This was completely uncharted territory as to whether plasticity would be a phenomenon underlying developmental disorders, and whether the visual cortex in the mouse could then model the disorder. And finally we had the idea that a molecule that has a role in regulating this plasticity can be applied to the disorder. Many ideas in science don’t work out, but this one did. Several people from my lab participated in the discovery. We also could not have tested these ideas without our collaboration with Rudolf Jaenisch and his lab. He was very generous with his lab’s resources — we had no grant funds for this work at that time — and our labs have now collaborated on several studies since then.

It is the dream of every neuroscientist to have an impact on the world in some way. And this is my dream come true!

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Advanced imaging reveals mired migration of neurons in Rett syndrome lab models

question for research paper

Rett syndrome drug shows promise in clinical trial

Three members of the team that found growth factor prevents the effects of visual deprivation in the brain pose in the lab. They are: Daniela Tropea, a postdoctoral fellow at the Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, seated; Gabriel Kreiman, a postdoctoral fellow with the McGovern Institute for Brain Research; and Mriganka Sur, head of the Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences at MIT.

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How To Write a Research Question

Deeptanshu D

Academic writing and research require a distinct focus and direction. A well-designed research question gives purpose and clarity to your research. In addition, it helps your readers understand the issue you are trying to address and explore.

Every time you want to know more about a subject, you will pose a question. The same idea is used in research as well. You must pose a question in order to effectively address a research problem. That's why the research question is an integral part of the research process. Additionally, it offers the author writing and reading guidelines, be it qualitative research or quantitative research.

In your research paper, you must single out just one issue or problem. The specific issue or claim you wish to address should be included in your thesis statement in order to clarify your main argument.

A good research question must have the following characteristics.

question for research paper

While a larger project, like a thesis, might have several research questions to address, each one should be directed at your main area of study. Of course, you can use different research designs and research methods (qualitative research or quantitative research) to address various research questions. However, they must all be pertinent to the study's objectives.

What is a Research Question?


A research question is an inquiry that the research attempts to answer. It is the heart of the systematic investigation. Research questions are the most important step in any research project. In essence, it initiates the research project and establishes the pace for the specific research A research question is:

A good research question usually focuses on the research and determines the research design, methodology, and hypothesis. It guides all phases of inquiry, data collection, analysis, and reporting. You should gather valuable information by asking the right questions.

Why are Research Questions so important?

Regardless of whether it is a qualitative research or quantitative research project, research questions provide writers and their audience with a way to navigate the writing and research process. Writers can avoid "all-about" papers by asking straightforward and specific research questions that help them focus on their research and support a specific thesis.

Types of Research Questions


There are two types of research: Qualitative research and Quantitative research . There must be research questions for every type of research. Your research question will be based on the type of research you want to conduct and the type of data collection.

The first step in designing research involves identifying a gap and creating a focused research question.

Below is a list of common research questions that can be used in a dissertation. Keep in mind that these are merely illustrations of typical research questions used in dissertation projects. The real research questions themselves might be more difficult.

Example Research Questions


The following are a few examples of research questions and research problems to help you understand how research questions can be created for a particular research problem.

Steps to Write Research Questions


You can focus on the issue or research gaps you're attempting to solve by using the research questions as a direction.

If you're unsure how to go about writing a good research question, these are the steps to follow in the process:

Additionally, use this list of questions as a guide when formulating your research question.

Are you able to answer a specific research question? After identifying a gap in research, it would be helpful to formulate the research question. And this will allow the research to solve a part of the problem. Is your research question clear and centered on the main topic? It is important that your research question should be specific and related to your central goal. Are you tackling a difficult research question? It is not possible to answer the research question with a simple yes or no. The problem requires in-depth analysis. It is often started with "How" and "Why."

Start your research Once you have completed your dissertation research questions, it is time to review the literature on similar topics to discover different perspectives.

Strong  Research Question Samples

Uncertain: How should social networking sites work on the hatred that flows through their platform?

Certain: What should social media sites like Twitter or Facebook do to address the harm they are causing?

This unclear question does not specify the social networking sites that are being used or what harm they might be causing. In addition, this question assumes that the "harm" has been proven and/or accepted. This version is more specific and identifies the sites (Twitter, Facebook), the type and extent of harm (privacy concerns), and who might be suffering from that harm (users). Effective research questions should not be ambiguous or interpreted.

Unfocused: What are the effects of global warming on the environment?

Focused: What are the most important effects of glacial melting in Antarctica on penguins' lives?

This broad research question cannot be addressed in a book, let alone a college-level paper. Focused research targets a specific effect of global heating (glacial  melting), an area (Antarctica), or a specific animal (penguins). The writer must also decide which effect will have the greatest impact on the animals affected. If in doubt, narrow down your research question to the most specific possible.

Too Simple: What are the U.S. doctors doing to treat diabetes?

Appropriately complex: Which factors, if any, are most likely to predict a person's risk of developing diabetes?

This simple version can be found online. It is easy to answer with a few facts. The second, more complicated version of this question is divided into two parts. It is thought-provoking and requires extensive investigation as well as evaluation by the author. So, ensure that a quick Google search should not answer your research question.

How to write a strong Research Question?


The foundation of all research is the research question. You should therefore spend as much time as necessary to refine your research question based on various data.

You can conduct your research more efficiently and analyze your results better if you have great research questions for your dissertation, research paper, or essay.

The following criteria can help you evaluate the strength and importance of your research question and can be used to determine the strength of your research question:

Conclusion - How to write Research Questions?

Research questions provide a clear guideline for research. One research question may be part of a larger project, such as a dissertation. However, each question should only focus on one topic.

Research questions must be answerable, practical, specific, and applicable to your field. The research type that you use to base your research questions on will determine the research topic. You can start by selecting an interesting topic and doing preliminary research. Then, you can begin asking questions, evaluating your questions, and start your research.

Now it's easier than ever to streamline your research workflow with SciSpace . Its integrated, comprehensive end-to-end platform for research allows scholars to easily discover, read, write and publish their research and fosters collaboration.

Before You Go,

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Research Questions: Definition, Types, and How to Write One

antony w

by  Antony W

March 10, 2023

research questions

If you’re looking for the complete guide to research questions, this article is for you. In this in-depth post, you’ll learn:

Plus, we’ll provide some example of research questions in the last section of this guide to make everything clear.

Keep in mind that coming up with relevant research questions is the first step to writing a killer thesis, a dissertation, or research paper .

The question you come up with should not only provide a path for the research and writing process, but also help you to about being generic and focus on an arguable, specific concept instead.

What are Research Questions?

what is a research question

A research question is the main focus of a research project. By definition, this is the question around which you’ll center your research writing.

Good research question should be:

A research question may be around an issue that you’re either curious or passionate about. In some cases, your instructor may give you a topic for your research project.

Either way, you’ll have to develop relevant research questions and pick the most relevant one for the project.

Types of Research Questions 

types of research questions

There are two main type of research questions. These are qualitative and quantitative research questions. Each of the type has other subtypes, and we discuss them below:

Qualitative Research Questions

This type of research question focuses on exploring meaning and experience.

It focuses on a larger group and seeks to understand a concept or experiment. It's open ended in structure as it focuses more on the experiences of more than one person.

Formulate questions from data collected from case studies, focus groups, and surveys.

Type of Qualitative Research Questions 

There are three types of qualitative research questions and they are as follows:

Exploratory Questions 

The type of question you ask because you want to understand a topic.

These kind of questions don’t require a preconceived notions or bias. You ask because you want to understand a topic.


question for research paper

Interpretative Questions 

We come up with these kind of questions because we want to learn and understand how a group of people view and interpret shared experiences.

Plus, the question focuses on how they attribute those experiences to different phenomena in life.

When you ask this kind of question, you’re mainly interested in understanding the feedback on a group’s behavior.

question for research paper

Predictive Questions

 Predictive questions are the kind you ask if you’re concerned about the future outcome of an event or an action.

As a researcher, you’ll use the past information to predict reaction to an event.

question for research paper

Quantitative Research Questions 

Here, researchers use empirical evidence and measurable data to give an explanation for an occurrence.

This one is common in historical, statistical, marketing and psychical research studies.

Often used to confirm or disapprove a hypothesis through comparisons, descriptions, and relationships. 

Types of Quantitative Research Questions 

Relationship-based questions .

Relationship based questions are the ones you ask if you want to know the effect of two or more variables on one of more groups.

From a statistics viewpoint, relationship-based questions fall in the experimental research design where we measure the cause and effect between two or more variables.

It’s different in dissertation, especially at the undergraduate and master’s level, as the questions are often based on quasi-experimental and relationship-based research design. In this case, it’s impossible to account for casual relationship between variables. There are only trends and associations. 

We start relationship-based research questions with the phrase “what is the relationship?” followed by the terms “between or amongst”. Then we list an independent and a dependent variable.

question for research paper

Descriptive Questions

If you want to know why, how, when, or where something occurred, then you should use descriptive questions.

This is where you use question phrases such as “what proportion?”, “how often?”, “how much?”, and “what percentage?” to quantify the variable under examination.

You’ll have to use data and stats to describe an event, a group of people or things, or a phenomenon. 

rq5 example

Comparative Questions 

These are the types of questions to ask when you want to compare one occurrence or group with another.

Your goal is to examine the difference between groups on one or more variables. This type of research question will start with the phrase “What’s the difference in?” followed by the dependent variable.

More often than not, a comparative research question uses a single dependent variable when comparing concepts or groups, but it’s also common to come across some complex questions in which case the dependent variable consists of two or more items. 


research question 6 example

How to Develop Write Research Questions 

Now that you know the different types of research questions, let’s see how you can come up with a best research question for your study.

how to develop a research question

Step #1: Identify and Start with a Broad Topic 

We recommend you start with a broad topic because it gives you the opportunity to explore plenty of avenues that you can use to come up with as many research questions as possible.

By going broad, it becomes easier to find a topic, develop it into subtopics, and then come up with potential questions or your research project. At this stage, you should pay more attention to brainstorming and mapping your concept while organizing your thoughts at the same time. 

Don’t choose a broad topic based on its popularity. Instead, make sure the area of study is something you are passionate about and genuinely interested in examining. At the end of the day, you don’t want to focus on a topic that will demotivate your level of research when you’re even barely halfway the job.

Step #2: Do In-depth Preliminary Research for Your Topic 

Start doing preliminary research on the broad topic that you chose in step 1.

Here, your goal is to discover issues that scholars and researchers discuss so you’re up to date on the topic.

Also, this is the stage where you identify gaps and limits on the current knowledge of the topic. Often, these gaps make the best focus area for research questions.

Step #3: Narrow Down the Topic, Then Pick Research Questions 

You’ve gathered a lot of information in step 2.

Now it’s time to narrow down the topic to a more specific area of the study. While you have many options here, we recommend that it’s best to focus on the existing gaps that you identified in the previous step.

Here, you’re using the gap spotting approach first developed by Alvesson and Sandberg in 2011 to come up with research questions that touch deeply on the areas of study that researchers have overlooked.

You can use your personal experiences to develop a research question. According to Lipowski, a researcher can identify problematic areas of their practice and come up with questions to address.

Alvesson even provides a problematization technique, which mainly allows you to challenge and scrutinize a theoretical position, makes it easy for you to come up with research questions that can easily challenge your knowledge and view of the area of study.

Step #4: Determine the Relevance of Your Research Question 

You have a number of research questions at this stage already, but not all of them are sound to begin with.

So how do you know you have a good research question? You do that by using the FINER criteria developed by Hulley Et Al in 2007.

In other words, your research questions should be:

Step #5: Construct Your Research Question 

The last step in developing a research question is to use the right framework to structure the question properly.

While there are many research question frameworks that you can use, the PICOT and PEO are the most commonly used. 

Using the PICOT Framework

example of PEO framework

Using the PEO Framework

Author Image

About the author 

Antony W is a professional writer and coach at Help for Assessment. He spends countless hours every day researching and writing great content filled with expert advice on how to write engaging essays, research papers, and assignments.

Question about ChatGPT and academic misconduct

question for research paper

But he is using chatgpt (I have reasonable believes, like detectors) in his part of the work. I do not think I want to or able to write his part. So now we either submit it with GPT content in it or without (that means we will have a very crapy introduction). I think the best way is to somehow convince him?

How is this even a question? Including thoughts or words that are not your own, without proper citation, is plagiarism.

My prof said it is in grey are. And with that being said, if I acknowledge those, is it still? (As chatgpt cannot be “cited” I could only put it in acknowledgment

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